Ever wondered about the history of the Haggadah? We did, and so we developed a chronology of the Haggadah or timeline of the Haggadah with dates of events in the development of the Haggadah.
the following is a history of the Haggadah in the form of a timeline of the Haggadah or chronology of the Haggadah with dates of events in the development of the Haggadah:
Late Tanaaim Period (Circa 170 C.E. - 200 C.E. or 220 C.E.) - Amoraim Period (200 C.E. or 220 C.E. - 500 C.E.): Why circa 170 C.E. as the starting point? Since Rabbi Yehudah bar Elai, who lived circa 170 C.E., is the last of the Talmudic Tanaaim to be mentioned in the teachings of the Haggadah, the Haggadah is therefore believed to have been compiled into its present form in Judea starting from the approximate date of circa 170 C.E. to 500 C.E. The Tanaaim were the rabbis who compiled the Mishnah section of the Talmud while the Amoraim were the rabbis who compiled the Gemara section of the Talmud. Together, the Mishnah and the Gemara comprise the Talmud. Another theory postulates that since much of the text of the Haggadah dates from the Second Temple period, it was compiled at an earlier time, during the Second Temple Period (520 B.C.E. - 70 C.E.) in Judea.
90 C.E.: the first mention of a Seder service was in the Mishnah of the Talmud (Talmud, Mishnah, Pesachim 10:5) by Rabbi Gamaliel the Elder (or Rabbi Gamaliel I), who was President of the Jewish legislative body in Jerusalem (known as the Sanhedrin), who declared: “One who has not said (I.E. not understood the spiritual implications of) these three words, Pesah, Matzah, and Maror has not done his duty” (or “Whoever has not discussed these three things at Pesach has not fulfilled his obligation: the Pesach, Matzah, and Maror”).
7th Century C.E. - 8th Century C.E.: The Geonim (the leaders of the Jewish academies of learning in Sura and Pumbeditia, Babylonia, now Iraq) compile the version of the Haggadah as it is known today.
9th Century C.E. (circa 860 C.E.): The earliest version of the Haggadah that is still in existence is the Haggadah contained in the prayer book (“Siddur” or “Seder” in Hebrew) of the prominent Gaon (singular form of Geonim) Amram Gaon (died either 875 C.E. or 876 C.E.). His Siddur is simply entitled: “Siddur (or Seder) Rav Amram” (“Order of Prayers of Rabbi Amram” in Hebrew). Rav Amram Gaon was the leader of the Jewish academy of learning in Sura, Babylonia, from 856 C.E. to either 875 C.E. or 876 C.E. A reletively complete fragment of this Haggadah was found in the Cairo Genizah - a repository/archive for ancient Jewish sacred writings/manuscripts located in the synagogue, built in 882 C.E., of the Egyptian city of Fostat (now Cairo). These sacred writings were placed in the Cairo Genizah because they were either discarded or were worn from age or use - and although this is a relatively complete fragment, it is sparse in its content. It contained liturgy text for an after-dinner service.
Mid-10th Century C.E. - 11th Century C.E.: The second-earliest version of the Haggadah that is still in existence appeared in the prayer book (“Siddur” or “Seder” in Hebrew) of the prominent Gaon (singular form of Geonim) Sa’adiah ben Yosef Gaon (882 C.E. or 892 C.E. – 942 C.E.), who was the leader of the Jewish academy of learning - known in Hebrew as a Yeshivah or Yeshiva - at Sura, Babylonia, from 928-942. The title of this prayer book in Hebrew is “Siddur (or Seder) Rav Saadia Gaon” (“Order of Prayers of Rabbi Sa’adia Gaon”, since the contents of the prayer book follow a specific, structured order or arrangement). A fragment of Rav Saadia Gaon’s Haggadah was found in the Cairo Genizah. In this fragment, it is clear that the written text that is supposed to guide the oral telling of the Exodus from Egypt story was far from uniform. In addition, there is no mention of the Four Sons, and there are only Three Questions mentioned, instead of the now-traditional Four Questions. These omissions were characteristic of the Passover / Pesach service for the ancient Israeli rite.
13th Century C.E.: the first Haggadah appears as a separate volume/book (earlier versions of the Haggadah were appended to the Siddur, or Jewish prayer book).
1300 C.E.: The earliest illuminated Haggadah manuscript for Ashkenazi Jews (Jews whose ancestors came from either Central, Northwestern and/or Eastern Europe) is created. Its title is: the Bird’s Head Haggadah, so called because many of the persons depicted in the manuscript have the head of a bird, while other persons have the head of another animal, likely because of the belief not to show human heads, as that would have constituted displaying graven images alongside sacred text, forbidden in Judaism as stated in the Second Commandment of the Ten Commandments in the Torah of the Hebrew Bible. The angels in this Haggadah are shown with blank faces. The Bird’s Head Haggadah is the first Haggadah that introduced the baking of matzot (matzos) into the story of the Exodus from Egypt. The Bird’s Head Haggadah is housed in the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, Israel.
1320 C.E.: The earliest illuminated Haggadah manuscript for Sephardi Jews (Jews whose ancestors came from either Spain and/or Portugal) is created. Its title is: the Golden Haggadah, created in or near Barcelona, Spain. It is a magnificent and opulent Haggadah that was likely created for a wealthy Jewish family.
1350 C.E. - Circa 1370 C.E.: The best known illuminated Haggadah manuscript written in Hebrew is the Sarajevo Haggadah, a brilliantly illuminated Haggadah that was likely commissioned as a wedding gift to a young Jewish couple in Barcelona, Spain. However, after miraculously surviving centuries of expulsion, oppression, genocide, and two modern wars, it is now housed in the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
1482 (or circa 1482) C.E.: First Printed (text-only) Version of the Haggadah* in Guadalajara (“Wadi al Hijara” in Arabic), Spain. Its title is: “Haggadot Shel Pesah”, meaning the “Haggadahs (or Tellings) of Passover” in Hebrew. There is only one existing copy, and it is housed in the Jewish National University Library in Jerusalem, Israel. This Haggadah was created by by Shlomo (Solomon) ben Moshe (Moses) Alkabez.
* the year 1482 as the date for the first printed Haggadah (text-only) is an unconfirmed date, since there is no evidence of a place of publication and date of publication or colophon in the text of this Haggadah, therefore the date of 1482 is merely speculation.
1486 C.E.: First confirmed printing of the Haggadah (text-only) by the printing press of the Italian-Jewish Soncino family of Soncino, Italy. The Haggadah is of the German-Jewish prayer rite and is one book of a two-book volume. The other book is a mahzor or machzor (another name for a prayer book in Hebrew) entitled “Sidorello” or “Prayer Book” in Italian, and this prayer book is of the Roman-Jewish, or Italian-Jewish, prayer rite.
1505 C.E.: the first Haggadah that was printed with a commentary was entitled “Zevach (or Zevah) Pesach” (“Passover Sacrifice” in Hebrew). It was printed in Constantinople (now Istanbul), Ottoman Empire (now Turkey). It was created by one of the leading figures from the exiled Spanish-Jewish community, Yitzchak ben Yehuda Abravanel (in English, Don Isaac Abrabanel, or Abarbanel, or Abravanel), and printed by David and Samuel ibn Nahmais. This Haggadah has since been printed in English well over one hundred times.
1526 C.E. - 1527 C.E.: Earliest confirmed printing of an illustrated Haggadah (text and illustrations) that still exists in its entirety today. Using printing woodcuts to create illustrations, this illustrated Haggadah was illustrated and printed by Gershom ben Shlomo (“Solomon” in Hebrew) Ha-Kohen (or Ha-Cohen) (or Gershon ben Shlomo Ha-Kohen or Ha-Cohen) in Prague, now the capital city of the Czech Republic. Together with his brother Gronem (in English, Jerome) Katz, he completed and printed the first illustrated Haggadah on December 30, 1526. Its title in Hebrew is simply: Hagadah shel Pesah” [“Haggadah (or Telling) of Passover”]; an alternate title of this work in Hebrew is: “Hagadah Shel Gershom Cohen (or Gershon Cohen)” [“Haggadah (or Telling) of Gershom Cohen (or Gershon Cohen)”]. Gershom or Gershon Cohen was also known as Gershom or Gershon HaKohen (“the Priest” in Hebrew). He used his own printing press, known in Hebrew as: Mi-Bet (or Mi-Beth) Defuso Shel Gershom (or Gershon) Kohen [From the Publishing House of Gershom (or Gershon) Kohen]. The Prague Haggadah of 1526-1527 was a continuation of the fine illumination that was previously done for and in Haggadah manuscripts. Although there had been illustrations in Haggadahs prior to the Prague Haggadah of 1526-1527, none had used their illustrations quite as extensively and as support for the printed text as did the Prague Haggadah of 1526-1527. After the invention of printing, the first Hebrew book was printed in 1475, and the Prague Haggadah of 1526-1527 was the first Haggadah to be printed north of the Alps in Central Europe after the Spanish-Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492, and its tastefulness and beauty and ability to capture the feeling of the text served as the prototype for later editions of illustrated Haggadahs. This was also the Haggadah where the popular Passover song “Adir Hu” [“Mighty is He (G-d)” in Hebrew] first appeared in a printed Haggadah.
1545 C.E.: The “Sefer Zevach Pesach” (“Passover Sacrifice Book” in Hebrew) Haggadah that was first printed in 1505 C.E. is printed in a second edition in Venice, Italy. This is the first Haggadah that was printed in Venice. Marco Antonio Guistiniani, a Christian, printed and published this Haggadah as Jews were not permitted to own printing presses in Italy at that time.
1560 C.E.: The Mantua Haggadah of Mantua, Italy, was entitled “Haggadah Shel Pesach” (“Telling of Passover” in Hebrew). It copied the text of the 1526 C.E. - 1527 C.E. Prague Haggadah as a facsimile, but unlike the Prague Haggadah, which had just three pages of borders surrounding the text, the Mantua Haggadah had all of its pages surrounded by borders. In addition, new illustrations were added to the Mantua Haggadah. This Haggadah was printed using the printing press of Giacomo (“Jacob” in Italian) Rufinelli, who was a Christian as Jews were not permitted to own printing presses in Italy at that time, although the printing was supervised by a Jewish sexton at a Mantua synagogue named Isaac ben Solomon Bassan. New decorations in the margins were also added. The type of artistic expression also differed from the Prague Haggadah: where the artwork of the Prague Haggadah had a Germanic/Teutonic feel to it, the Mantua Haggadah used artwork throughout the Mantua Haggadah - including the decorations in the margins - that reflected the Italian Renaissance period.
1590 C.E.: the first printed Haggadah to contain the popular Passover song known as “Chad Gadya” [“An Only Kid (with “Kid” meaning a baby goat)” in Aramaic], as well as the Passover song “Echad Mi Yodea” (“Who Knows One” in Hebrew) appeared in Prague. “Chad Gadya” is distinguished by being the only Passover song that is written in Aramaic. It was originally written in Judeo-German and then it was translated into Aramaic for the 1590 C.E. Prague Haggadah. In the 1590 C.E. version of the Prague Haggadah, it was printed in both Judeo-German and Aramaic. The 1590 C.E. was published by the family of Gershom Cohen, the one who printed and illustrated the first illustrated Haggadah to be printed in 1526 C.E. - 1527 C.E. in Prague.
1609 C.E.: the first Haggadah that was printed which depicted the Ten Plagues in illustrations was the “Seder Haggadah Shel Pesah” [“Telling Order of Passover” in Hebrew]. It was printed in Venice, Italy by an Italian-Christian named Giovanni da Gara, using his printing press, as Jews were not permitted to own printing presses in Italy at that time. He was aided by an Italian-Jewish printer named Israel ben Daniel Zifroni of Guastalla, Italy, located near Padua, Italy. This Haggadah is also known as the Venice Haggadah of 1609 and it was created for Israel ben Daniel Zifroni. The Venice Haggadah appeared simultaneously with translations in Judeo-Italian, Judeo-Spanish and Judeo-German, the languages of the Jewish communities living in Venice at the time. The Venice Haggadah of 1609 has Hebrew writen down the center of the pages with Ladino (primarily a Hebrew-Spanish dialect) translations in columns down the sides of the pages. In the 17th century, Jews in Venice lived in ghettos, and that is where the term “ghetto” was coined. The Venice Haggadah of 1609 is currently housed in the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, Israel.
1695 C.E., 1712 C.E. (two editions): the first printed Haggadah to use copper-engraved illustrations (copperplates) instead of woodcut-engraved illustrations was the Amsterdam Haggadah. Copper-engraved illustrations provided more refinement and detail as opposed to woodcut-engraved illustrations. The Amsterdam Haggadah is housed in the Jerusalem collection of Michael Kauffman. The Amsterdam Haggadah was the first printed Jewish publication to include a map of Canaan (Land of Israel), complete with the route of the Exodus and the boundaries of Canaan (Land of Israel), which was added on a folding page at the end of the book. This map was also the first map to be printed in Hebrew. The Amsterdam Haggadah was printed by Solomon ben Joseph, and was illustrated by a convert to Judaism named Abraham ben Jacob, who borrowed most of the illustrations from a Christian artist named Mathaeus Merian of Basel, who, while living in Frankfurt, produced a large number of illustrations for the Old and New Testaments as well as for history books between 1625 and 1630 which were well-known across Europe at that time. This Haggadah became very popular among Southern European Jewish communities and was imitated often. It therefore had a lasting influence on the Haggadahs that were produced in the world of the Ashkenazim (Jews whose ancestors came from either Central, Northwestern, and/or Eastern Europe). The 1712 edition of the Amsterdam Haggadah added two new illustrations and the frontispiece (the illustration that either faces or immediately precedes the title page of a book, section of a book, or magazine) was changed.
1837 C.E.: the first Haggadah printed in the United States of America was by Solomon Henry Jackson, an immigrant from England. Its title was: “Service for the Two First Nights of the Passover in English and Hebrew, First American Edition”. It was printed in New York City and it was a gift from Mr. and Mrs. Liener Temerlin. It is currently housed in the Rosenbach Museum and Library in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
1886 C.E.: the first Haggadah of the Reform-Jewish stream of Judaism to be translated into English from German was written and published in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. It, however, was misnamed “Easter Eve”. It was created by Rabbi Herman M. Bien, and had an alternate (and correct) name: the “New Hagodah Shel Pesach” (“New Telling of Passover” in Hebrew).
1889 C.E.: the first Haggadah to use modern style illustrations was created by Rabbi Dr. Alexander Kisch (1848-1917), who was the leader of the Maisel Synagogue in Prague (now the capital city of the Czech Republic). This Haggadah is written in German and Hebrew and is entitled in Hebrew: “Seder Hagadah Shel Pesah” [“Telling Order of Passover”]. This Haggadah is also known as the Kisch Haggadah.
1892 C.E.: “Tefilot Yisrael [“Prayers (of) Israel (“Israel” in this context means the Hebrews/Jewish people)” in Hebrew]: The Union Prayer Book”, first edition, a Reform-Jewish prayer book, published by the Central Conference of American Rabbis, consisted of a ritual for the Seder meal, and it was based on and adapted from the earlier 1841 C.E. German version of the first Reform-Jewish Haggadah, authored by the Reform-Jewish German Rabbi Leopold Stein (1810-1882). Subsequent editions of the Union Prayer Book omitted the Seder ritual, the latter which was authored by I.S. Moses, who published the Seder ritual as a separate book in 1902 C.E. in New York City, and it was entitled: “Seder Hagadah [“Order (of the) Telling” in Hebrew] : Domestic Service For The Eve of Passover”.
1907 C.E. - 1908 C.E.: the first official Haggadah of the Reform-Jewish stream of Judaism to be translated into English from German was “The Union Haggadah”, published in New York City by the Bloch Publishing Company, for the Central Conference of American Rabbis, the official body of the Reform-Jewish movement in the United States.
1934 C.E.: the classic Maxwell House Haggadah was published for the first time by the Joseph Jacobs Advertising Agency of New York City, the latter at that time owned by the founder, Joseph Jacobs. The story begins with Jewish people of Ashkenazi descent (Ashkenazi Jews are Jews whose ancestors came from either Central, Northwestern, and/or Eastern Europe) following a traditional custom not to drink coffee during the Passover festival on the mistaken belief that the coffee bean was an actual bean that therefore fell into the category of legumes, and any food which fell into this category was religiously forbidden to be consumed during Passover. In 1923 C.E., Joseph Jacobs, an advertising genius of New York City, consulted an Orthodox rabbi, Rabbi Hersch Kohn, to determine if the Maxwell House coffee bean was, in a technical sense, more similiar to a berry - a fruit - than a bean and therefore, kosher for Passover, meaning it would be permitted by the Orthodox rabbi to be consumed during Passover. After the Orthodox rabbi issued his approval and certification that the Maxwell House coffee bean was in fact, kosher for Passover, General Foods, with the help of the Joseph Jacobs Advertising Agency, started to market Maxwell House coffee for Passover to Jews in New York City in 1923 C.E. Sales of Maxwell House coffee during Passover among the Jewish population rose dramatically. The success of this strategy led Joseph Jacobs to reinforce the kosher-for-Passover message by developing a Haggadah for Maxwell House in 1934 C.E. which, while marketing Maxwell House coffee as kosher-for-Passover to the Jewish population of New York City, was to be printed and then distributed for free to supermarkets across the United States, with free copies of the Maxwell House Haggadah being offered with the purchase of any Maxwell House coffee product, in a clever and successful effort to become a household name among American Jewry. Orthodox rabbis were again consulted to ensure the accuracy of the Haggadah. Since the Maxwell House Haggadah, noted for its simplicity, was given away at no cost, it became one of the most popular Haggadahs not only among American Jewry, but also among Canadian-Jewry. In fact, the Joseph Jacobs Advertising Agency still produces the Maxwell House Haggadah as of this writing in 2008 and as such, it is now the longest running sales promotion in advertising history, with over 50 million Maxwell House Haggadahs having been printed, making it the most widely used Haggadah in the world, and the most widely circulated Judaica item in the world. The result of this advertising campaign was that Maxwell House coffee became the preferred coffee in Jewish households. In the mid-1960’s, the Haggadah used a more modern English-language translation, and in 1997, the color scheme, traditionally a blue color, was changed to a multicolor scheme. Today (2008 as of this writing), Maxwell House is owned by Kraft Foods.
1941 C.E.: the first Haggadah published by the Reconstructionist movement of Judaism was entitled: “The New Haggadah for the Pesah Seder”. It was edited by the founder of Reconstructionist Judaism, Rabbi Mordecai Menahem Kaplan (1881-1983), his son-in-law Ira Eisenstein, and Eugene Kohn, and it was illustrated by Leonard Weisgard. It was sponsored by the Jewish Reconstructionist Foundation of Jenkintown, Pennsylvania, and was published by Behrman’s Jewish Book House Publishers of New York City, with revisions done in 1942 and 1978. It has Hebrew text with English translations.
1953 C.E.: From 1953 C.E. until the 1970’s C.E., both Conservative-Jewish and Orthodox-Jewish congregations in North America had widely used a traditional Passover Haggadah that was compiled and edited by Rabbi Dr. Philip (“Paltiel” in Hebrew) Birnbaum (1904-1988) in 1953 C.E. It is entitled: “Seder Hagadah Shel Pesach [“Order (of the) Telling of Passover” in Hebrew, or simply, The Passover Haggadah; it is also known as the Birnbaum Haggadah] and was published in New York City by the Hebrew Publishing Company. A reprint edition was issued in 1976 by the Hebrew Publishing Company. Both editions have Hebrew text with English translations.
1972 C.E.: Rabbi Morris Silverman (1894-1972), a Conservative-Jewish rabbi, compiled and edited a Conservative-Jewish Haggadah simply entitled “The Passover Haggadah (“Haggadah Shel Pesach” in Hebrew)”. It has Hebrew text with English translations. It was designed and illustrated by Ezekiel Schloss, and published in Bridgeport, Connecticut by Prayer Book Press of Media Judaica, Inc.
1976 C.E.: the first edition of the Haggadah from the Artscroll Series is published. A new approach is used in publishing Judaica: the translation from Hebrew into English and anthologized commentary continued to follow traditional Orthodox sources and was presented in a way that enabled those with a limited comprehension of Hebrew and Aramaic to learn Torah literature with the same clarity and understanding that their grandfathers had understood it, but unlike past publications in the Judaica publishing industry, the presentation utilized the most modern and sophisticated graphics, layout, and typesetting, similar to that of the secular publishing industry. Many Orthodox-Jewish congregations and families as well as Conservative-Jewish congregations and families have since used the Artscroll Haggadah, authored by Rabbi Joseph Elias and first published by Mesorah Publications Ltd. of Brooklyn, New York, in 1976 C.E., as well as its subsequent editions, for their Seder, although there are many other types of Haggadahs that are used among Orthodox and Conservative Jews.
1979 C.E.: the first Haggadah of the Humanistic Jewish movement was entitled: “The Humanist Haggadah”. It was edited by the founder of Humanistic Judaism, Rabbi Sherwin T. Wine (1928-2007). It was published by the Society for Humanistic Judaism in Farmington Hills, Michigan, and its text is in English.
1982 C.E.: the Rabbinical Assembly, which is the international association of Conservative-Jewish rabbis, published its own Haggadah for the first time. This is the first official Haggadah for the Conservative-Jewish movement. It was edited by Rachel Anne Rabinowicz and is entitled: “Passover Haggadah : The Feast of Freedom”. It includes colorful illustrations by prominent Israeli artist, Dan Reisinger.
1998 C.E.: the first Haggadah to treat all texts of the three major cultural streams of Judaism (Ashkenazi, Sephardi, and Mizrahi) on an equal footing, “The Scholar’s Haggadah: Ashkenazic, Sephardic, and Oriental Versions” was authored by Heinrich Guggenheimer. It was published by Jason Aronson Publishers, Inc. of Northvale, New Jersey, which was acquired by Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc. in December 2003.
The styles of the four earliest Haggadot or Haggadahs that were printed and included illustrations - the Prague Haggadah of 1526 C.E. - 1527 C.E., the Mantua Haggadah of 1560 C.E., the Venice Haggadah of 1609 C.E., and the Amsterdam Haggadah of 1695 C.E. - were so influential in Jewish communities across Europe that in subsequent printed editions of the Haggadah, all the Haggadot or Haggadahs from the 18th century, 19th century, and even into the 20th century were based on these four Haggadot or Haggadahs. The 20th century has seen new styles of Haggadot or Haggadahs not based on the four aforementioned Haggadot or Haggadahs, and as a result, the number of unique editions of the Haggadah has blossomed to where there are now at least 3,000 different versions of the Haggadah and counting, each styled according to the political, social, and/or religious views of the audience for which it is intended.
What were the factors that enabled the Haggadah to proliferate among Jewish communities worldwide, enabling the Haggadah to become one of the most popular books in Jewish religious literature? The answer is that the comparatively small size of the Haggadah vis-à-vis other Jewish religious literature enabled it to be purchased or commissioned at a relatively inexpensive price. In addition, the small size of the Haggadah made it not very labor-intensive for a Jewish scribe to write and complete, and an artist to illuminate.
Since the 16th century, the Haggadah has been translated from Hebrew into the vernacular Jewish language of countries where Jewish people have lived. This includes languages such as Yiddish [a mixture of Hebrew (about 10%), medieval German (about 70%), Russian and Polish (about 20%), it also includes a sprinkling of other European languages as well], Ladino (primarily a mixture of Hebrew and Castilian Spanish, but also influenced by Aramaic, Arabic, Turkish, and Greek and, depending on the geographic location of the speaker, also including words from Portuguese, French, Turkish, Greek, Bulgarian, and Bosnian), Yevanika (also known as either Yevanic, Judeo-Greek, or Romaniote, it is a mixture of Hebrew and Greek), Judeo-Arabic [including Baghdad Arabic (Jewish), Judeo-Iraqi Arabic (also known as Yahudic), Judeo-Moroccan, Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic, Judeo-Tunisian Arabic, and Judeo-Yemenite], and Judeo-Persian [includes the 14 different Judeo-Iranian languages spoken in various areas of Persia/Iran: Dzhidi (Judeo-Persian in literature), Bukhori (the language of the Jews of Bukhara, Uzbekistan), Judeo-Golpaygani (traditionally spoken in the town of Gulpaigan and western Isfahan Province, Iran), Judeo-Yazdi (spoken in the city of Yazd and elsewhere in Yazd Province, in central Iran), Judeo-Kermani (spoken in the city of Kerman and elsewhere in Kerman Province, in south-central Iran), Judeo-Shirazi (spoken in the city of Shiraz and elsewhere in Fars Province, in southwestern Iran), Judeo-Esfahani (spoken in the city of Isfahan and in the surrounding area, as well as elsewhere in central and southern Isfahan Province, Iran), Judeo-Hamedani (spoken in the city of Hamadan and elsewhere in Hamadan Province, in western Iran), Judeo-Kashani (spoken in the city of Kashan and elsewhere in northern Isfahan Province, in western Iran), Judeo-Borujerdi (spoken in the city of Borujerd and elsewhere in Lorestan Province, in western Iran), Judeo-Nehevandi (spoken in the city of Nahavand and elsewhere in northern Hamadan Province, in western Iran), Judeo-Khunsari (spoken in the city of Khansar and elsewhere in far-western Isfahan Province, in western Iran), Juhuri (Judeo-Tat), and Judeo-Kurdish (not to be confused with several Jewish Neo-Aramaic languages which are also sometimes called “Judeo-Kurdish”)].